The Capuchin Order arrived in Lublin in 1721. Between 1726-33 a church and monastery was built for them, financed by Paweł Sanguszko, who was later buried in the underground part of the church and his wife Anna née Lubomirska. The exterior and interior of both buildings were supposed to emphasise the strict rule according to which the friars lived. The facade is modest and harmonious, its only decoration are pilasters and statues of St Peter and Paul. The fire of 1768 destroyed the roof and interior furnishings; it was later restored. In 1857, at the eastern side, the neo-Gothic chapel of the Immaculate Heart of Mary was added, where a white marble statue of the Mother of God is located, created by W. Oleszczyński. The church interior is austere, without gilts or paintings; the oak altars are not polychromed.
In 1864, the Capuchin Order was relocated to Łomża, the monastery was converted into a warehouse, and the church was handed over to diocesan priests. The assets returned to the Order in 1919.