The hill located at the confluence of the rivers Bystrzyca and Czechówka, surrounded by pools, was hard to conquer. The natural assets of this location determined that an early-medieval fortified settlement was erected here, probably as early as the 6th century. The Gothic castle, built on the hill in the 1st half of the 14th century by Casimir the Great, fell into decay as a result of military operations in the 2nd half of the 17th century and was finally demolished in the 18th century. Today only the 13th-century Romanesque tower, known as Donżon, the Gothic chapel of the Holy Trinity and a section of the Gothic tower, known as the Jewish Tower, still prevail out of the entire castle complex. The current neo-Gothic building complex was erected in the years 1824-26 to serve as a prison used by Russian and Austrian partitioner authorities, German occupiers, as well as the government of the Polish People's Republic until 1954. The castle premises are the location of the Museum of Lublin, whose collections are gathered in several departments, among others: archaeological, numismatic, military and ethnographic. The painting gallery showcases the famous painting of Jan Matejko entitled 'The Union of Lublin', as well as valuable paintings of Polish and foreign artists.